Assessment Of The Property Complex

Assessment Of The Property Complex

Features of work on the assessment of the property complex of the enterprise

The property complex of the enterprise consists of a large number of objects that are diverse in their parameters and characteristics. Assessment of the property complex is a laborious and laborious process, even for experienced and professional appraisers. Evaluating large ICs, in order to optimize time and labor costs, and also to meet the promised deadlines, working groups of specialists are created within our company, each of which is entrusted with an assessment of a particular type of objects.

Depending on the tasks set by the customer, it is not always necessary to determine the market value of the IC. Often, appraisers are faced with the tasks, by definition:

  • Investment value is the future income that IC can bring
  • Liquidation value — market value minus the costs associated with immediate sale in bankruptcy or the need to pay the enterprise’s debts
  • Cadastral value – depending Infrastructure locations, site infrastructure, land use prices.

To obtain the most accurate result, our specialists evaluate IC from the point of view of all existing valuation approaches – profitable, costly, and comparative. Appraisers use complementary methods, resulting in a total picture of the value of the property complex.

This becomes possible because the market value of the property complex can be considered as the total cost of the individual components of IC, if they are sold separately.

We, as a result, get the general picture of the value of the property complex.

Independent property valuation and expertise:

Property Valuation:

One of the most popular valuation services today is the valuation of property of the enterprise. Every company today needs reliable information on the value of fixed assets in order to correctly reflect them in accounting, charge depreciation, and make very important management decisions.

The property of an enterprise includes real estate, machines, equipment, securities, intangible assets, and so on.

Assessment of property of the enterprise is carried out in the event that it is necessary:

  • Completeness and correctness of accounting;
  • make a sale transaction;
  • to lease the property or leasing;
  • get a loan;
  • develop strategies for further development and so on.

Having information about the real market value of the property of an enterprise, it is possible to perform an analysis of the efficiency of enterprise management, to take measures to improve management efficiency and so on.

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Our employees have extensive experience in carrying out such work, supported by a huge theoretical base, practical skills and abilities.

In our activities we use income, expenditure and comparative methods. This allows us to very accurately assess the value of the assets of enterprises.

Each of our conclusions are distinguished by professionalism, accuracy and validity of all data, all factors that could affect the final cost of the object of evaluation.

The valuation of the property complex is the valuation of the tangible assets of the enterprise and its liabilities, including land plots, production equipment, buildings and structures, communications and vehicles. In assessing the property complex, the effect of synergy is taken into account, the essence of which is that the value of the property of an enterprise is higher if it interacts with each other, rather than the total value of each individual object.

An enterprise is a property complex that is used for business activities. The enterprise, as a property complex, includes all types of property that are intended for its activities: real estate, land, equipment, raw materials and materials, intangible assets, finished goods, etc.

Evaluation of an enterprise as a property complex means the definition in monetary terms of the value of an enterprise’s tangible assets as a combination of the values ​​of fixed assets and their interrelationships at the valuation date.

The valuation of the property complex is considered the most multifaceted and full-fledged type of valuation work in the field of business valuation and enterprise valuation. Estimation of the value of the property complex allows to calculate the value of the complex of property rights of a legal entity for objects that are on the balance sheet of the evaluated enterprise (business, company). In the process of an independent examination of the property complex can be considered as a set of objects that are owned by the company, or as an object of the rights of a legal entity. Assessment of the integral property complex- a complex, multidimensional, widely specialized process, in which, as a rule, appraisers from different areas are involved. Integral property complexes are enterprises and their structural subdivisions such as, a workshop, production, a site, etc., which can be separated in the established order into independent objects with the subsequent drawing up of an appropriate balance sheet and can be registered as independent business entities.


Property Valuation Method

Property Valuation Method

Independent assessment of property: carried out by independent experts at the request of the management of organizations and enterprises, in order to promote the business, to determine the value of enterprises and companies, and for other purposes;

Independent assessment of property on the basis of civil and legal agreements and court decisions: this is the case when the assessment of the property of an enterprise is made by independent experts on the basis of a court decision or in accordance with the provisions of the Legislation, the contract;

Internal assessment of the property of an enterprise: that type of assessment, when produced by its entrepreneurs and business leaders, the management of an enterprise – of its own accord and on its own, without the involvement of outside specialists and independent and state experts.

This is how the list of the main types by which the types of property valuations of enterprises are made from the point of view of its initiation is made. Specialists of the department for evaluating enterprises and businesses of our organization, NP “Federation of Judicial Experts”, have to solve many problems in this area, as with the development of the market, as well as business and industrial relations, Russian enterprises are increasingly in need of such an assessment and need it for various reasons, as mentioned above.

Now you can take a look at the separation of the ways of assessing the assets of enterprises from the point of view of the evaluation technology used. This list looks like this:

The market method, which includes property valuation on the basis of the income method, the cost method and the comparative method. Respectively:

  • The income method works with the planned prospects of income from the object;
  • Cost – calculates the cost of restoring or replacing the object;


determines the value of the enterprise, comparing it with other similar indicators for different indicators, and, finding the closest ones, offers to evaluate the object in the same way.

In addition, there are the following types of valuation of property of enterprises and methods of calculating the cost: There are other methods for determining the value of enterprises and their tangible and intangible assets. The use of one of the methods listed above is assigned in accordance with the goal set for the experts and for the assessment of the property itself. The objectives of such procedures as various types of valuation of property of enterprises are a separate topic that we will not have time to cover here.

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In any case, whatever you are interested in, all persons and organizations from the territory of the Russian Federation can contact us. The problems or successes of your production or enterprise become ours, then when we deal with your object. We offer not only to order all types of enterprise property valuations, but also to receive any detailed advice on these issues. Property valuation methods

Today, for the success of each enterprise, it is necessary to keep records of its general condition. For this purpose, you should order the services of a professional appraiser in determining the size of the property. Experts of the Autonomous Non-Commercial Organization “Center for Real Estate and Business Valuation”, which have already established the most effective property valuation methods, have been specializing in this field for many years.

Types of establishing the size of the state:

The practice of property valuation involves the selection of the most relevant research method from the existing three. So, there are three approaches to the study of the state of the company:

  • Cost type
  • Income approach
  • Market or comparative method
  • Features of the approaches

But it is worth noting that if we apply each of the methods separately, then each of them has its own tasks, goals and prospects for evaluation. Therefore, they cannot be mutually exclusive, but on the contrary, they will supplement each other.

The practice of property valuation allows the choice of two or three approaches for a full analysis of the situation. But at the same time, the type of value is of great importance, which is estimated. Thus, liquidation, market, consumer, or investment value may be subject to valuation.

History Of Real Estate Appraisal

History Of Real Estate Appraisal

In the real estate appraisal, NP “Federation of Judicial Experts” uses all modern knowledge in the field of trade and the real estate market, all the methodologies that exist for the most competent of such assessments. In particular, when calculating the cost, the following divisions are used between the types of the value of real estate of any type:

The market value is the amount for which the property owner would like to sell it, and the buyer (potential) would agree to purchase it. The following factors are taken into account. The owner is not obliged to sell the property, and the buyer – to purchase it. Both the owner and the potential buyer have an idea of ​​the value of the property. Thus, this sum consists of the combination of two estimates;

Replacement cost:

The amount for which at the market value of materials and production at the time of evaluation, you can fully reproduce the object of evaluation;

Initial cost:

The amount that was spent on the creation of the object or the purchase of the object at the time of the start of its operation;

Residual value:

The price of the object of evaluation, taking into account the degree of physical deterioration;

the price of the object for taxation is the value that is used to calculate the taxation on real estate;

Collateral value:

The amount that can be specified as the value of the object when granting a loan under it.

specially important is real estate valuation, such as calculating the cost of apartments, in large and medium-sized cities, where the real estate market is very active. Basically, as already noted, these are apartments that are a constant selling commodity for transactions of purchase, sale and exchange. Therefore, the procedure for appraising an apartment is constantly in demand – both at the time of the decision of the owner to find out its value, and when the time comes before the conclusion of a transaction with such an object.

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The history of real estate appraisal in Russia begins with the efforts of individuals, experts and companies. Then state institutions joined this activity, and this activity itself became regulated by legislative acts. In 1998, in Russia, the Law on Appraisal Activities regulated the main points of interaction between the appraiser and the customer of real estate appraisal. Today in this activity there are two main areas:

determining the value of objects for private owners and buyers;

determining the value of objects for the needs of state structures.

In addition to the federal legislation on appraisal activities, the regulations for the conduct of various appraisals of real estate and apartments are influenced by regulations and points of local federal legislation at the place of the appraisal activity. Today, there are many public and private services that offer such assessments.

Among other similar innovations, the possibility of evaluating such real estate is also developing with the help of online consultations and special sites. On them, each of the visitors has the opportunity to fill out a questionnaire, which indicates the basic data of the object. Online experts are primarily interested in the basic parameters of housing, which play a crucial role in the formation of prices for apartments on the Russian market. Minor signs can be specified separately, and affect the cost within a few percent.

Such an assessment of real estate with the help of online services in many cases may be faster and cheaper than all other ways to find out its market value. However, the most reliable method of obtaining accurate information still remains to apply for services to such organizations as the NP “Federation of Judicial Experts”. Based on many factors, you will be informed of the most adequate information about what the value of the object is, not only at the moment, but also in the near future.

Often, in the process of dividing jointly acquired property, it becomes necessary to conduct an assessment. Although family law does not classify the evaluation procedure as compulsory, it is sometimes impossible to do without it — for example, if the evaluation report has evidence in court.

Property Rights.

Property Rights.

Property –

a collection of things that are owned by an individual or legal entity (including money, securities) as well as their property rights.

The objects of evaluation in this case are:

  1. Objects of real estate.
  2. Organizations, enterprises, companies, firms.
  3. Securities, shares.
  4. Industrial equipment.
  5. . Automobile, river, air transport.
  6. Objects of intellectual property, etc.

Why you need to contact us?

The specialists of the Center are FREE to advise all clients and help to understand the situation.

Reports on the evaluation of experts of the Center are the basis for making court decisions.

Before delivering the result to the Customer, each Report is checked by the Center’s lawyers.

In our state, only professional appraisers with higher education and work experience of at least 10 years work.

The evaluators of the Center are part of the SRO, their responsibility and the responsibility of the Center are insured in accordance with the procedure established by the legislation of the Russian Federation.

The cost of property valuation starts from 2 thousand rubles and directly depends on the scope of work and the object of evaluation.

Legacy is not only an acquisition, but also some expenses. In addition to the fact that together with the property rights to the heir, the testator’s obligations are often transferred, and he also incurs expenses related to the inheritance procedure. For example, the amount of the state fee directly depends on the total value of the inheritance, which is determined by the assessment.

Thus, the evaluation of inheritance property is one of the most important stages of the inheritance procedure. Many heirs do not quite clearly understand why it is needed, who can carry out appraisal work, what documents are needed for this, what costs in connection with this will have to be incurred. This article will answer all these questions. Thus, the main purpose of assessing inheritance property is the execution of a document that is necessary for the correct calculation of state duty. Without it, the heir will not receive a certificate of inheritance.

Not only real estate (house, apartment, dacha, land plot) should be evaluated, but also other property specified in the will or inherited by law, if the ownership of it is subject to state registration, for example…

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Real estate (residential and non-residential);


  1. Securities;
  2. Valuable movable property;
  3. Weapon;
  4. Intellectual property;
  5. Legislation

All issues related to the evaluation of inheritance property are regulated by the provisions of the Constitution, civil and tax laws, as well as certain federal laws and government acts, in particular:

Who conducts the evaluation?

As a rule, the inheritance is not one property (apartment, garage, car), but a property complex. Therefore, the heirs have to apply to various specialized bodies and organizations – to assess each type of property.

According to the legislation, the assessment can be conducted…

State bodies and organizations, the law vested with the authority to conduct an appraisal;

Private independent organizations licensed to conduct valuation activities’ order to obtain information on the cadastral value of the hereditary property, the heir may use the electronic resource of Rosiest:

Fill in the application form on the site and order an extract about the value of the property;

Find the property on the map, indicating the cadastral number, obtain information on cadastral value and other characteristics;

Download an electronic document – an evaluation report with the results of the cadastral valuation and information on the value of the property.

In addition, the heir can apply directly to the Federal Cadaster Chamber of Rosreestra. Within 5 working days after submitting the request, the heir will be issued a document on the cadastral value of the hereditary property. A notary must accept the information received as a document for calculating the state duty.


Property Valuation For Insurance

Property Valuation For Insurance

If you plan to insure your property, when negotiating with an insurance company you may need to conclude on the insurance value of the property to agree on the volume of insurance payments.

When concluding a property insurance contract, it is important to correctly assess its insurance value. So, in the Civil Code of the Russian Federation (Article 947, paragraph 2) it is established that the sum insured must not exceed the real value of the property on the date of concluding the property insurance contract. In the case of a real estate insurance contract for a large amount, the contract is void in terms of exceeding the insured amount over the market value, and the excessively paid insurance premium is not returned to the insured. Thus, when concluding an insurance contract for property and determining its insurable value, the parties must proceed solely from the actual (market) value of the property.

Perhaps the insurance company will invite its appraiser, but a one-sided evaluation may not always be objective, so it is advisable to resort to the services of a third-party appraiser. It should be noted that the importance of having a report on the appraisal of insured property also consists in the fact that the independent expert appraisal, categorically, does not allow the insurer to subsequently challenge the insured amount under the contract, since Article 948 of the Civil Code expressly prohibits: “The insurable value of property specified in the contract insurance, cannot be subsequently challenged, except for the case when the insurer who did not use his right to assess the insured risk before the conclusion of the contract was deliberately introduced misleading with respect to this value. “

Thus, before insuring your property, it is better to make an independent assessment of its insured value. The conclusion on insurance value is issued by a specialized appraiser in the form of a Property Valuation Report that contains detailed information about the property being valued, its location, surroundings, the methodology for assessing the value of property, and performing calculations in accordance with federal and international standards for valuation. This Property Valuation Report becomes an official document and is provided to the insurance company.

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Valuation of property is one of the directions of professional activity of our Company.

The professional real estate appraisers working in our Company know the requirements of insurance companies, as well as all the “pitfalls” of compiling insurance assessment reports. Thanks to this, our clients in the vast majority successfully solve emerging issues related to property insurance.

In the event of an insured event, our Company will assess the damage to the insured property.


The letter considers the following situation. The parent company took property from the liquidated subsidiary that remained after settlement with creditors. Since Chapter 25 of the Tax Code does not contain provisions establishing the procedure for determining the value of fixed assets and materials received during the liquidation of an organization and the distribution of its property, the company has the following issues: 1) whether it is possible to take the specified property to tax accounting at its residual value as of the date of receipt on the basis of the data of the liquidated organization; 2) if the residual value is less than 100,000 rubles. Is it possible to recognize the received property as non-depreciable and include its value in the material costs? Position of the Ministry of Finance of Russia The opinion of the financial department on how much property should be taken into account in the tax account, the property that was left to the founder when the organization was liquidated, was repeatedly changed. So, in a letter dated 24.06.2008 No. 03-03-06 / 1/367, the financiers explained that the value of such property cannot be determined as the amount of expenses incurred when acquiring a stake in the authorized capital of the liquidated organization, since these expenses are not taken into account for the purposes taxation of profits on the basis of clause 3 of Art. 270 of the Tax Code. In addition, the founder has no expenses for the acquisition of this property, which could be taken into account when forming its value in accordance with the provisions of cl. 254, item 1 of Art. 257 or the sub. 2 p. 1 of Art. 268 of the Tax Code

An appointment expected and unmissable for all musicians

An appointment expected and unmissable for all musicians

Learning music is far from being a pleasant task. There are several difficulties: the theory and the instrument and its own difficulties (the independence of the hands on the piano, the breath on the trumpet …).

For someone who does not have much patience or who has not yet developed a passion for music, classes can become boring. Indeed, learning music requires several years, it’s a long journey and sometimes you have to be patient.

The idea of ​​abandoning everything then comes after a few learning sessions. If there is no doubt that learning music theory is necessary for any musician, then ways of learning must be found?

Fortunately, this is possible through play. In fact, it is sometimes useful, as in any other learning, to multiply the ways of learning, not to systematically take the same paths. You have to be cunning, improvise and the same recipes do not work for everything.

Learn music theory differently

In general, it is the apprenticeship of music theory that gives a hard time to the apprentice musicians. Without good technique, it could actually become complex. Having to identify the notes on the staves is not fun. When you have to count the times and discover the various symbols like sharp and flat, you start to get confused. Few are able to decipher quickly and easily.

Currently, learning to read notes can be done through the game. Effective methods have appeared on the Internet. Thus, one can avoid the music school or else, this learning of the theory can be done in parallel. The results can be satisfactory when the student follows the guidelines. Of course, the attendance is necessary. The game does not prevent rigor.


More fun music lessons

Musical learning through play is not just about children. On the contrary, adults are the most concerned by this new technique. Many of them have abandoned their dream of becoming a musician because of the difficulty of learning. This time they do not have to break their heads to read the notes. They will learn while having fun. It can only motivate them more.

The advantage of adopting this new method is that it allows you to evolve at your own pace. Most games have different levels of difficulty. To move to the next level, some challenges must be addressed. They usually consist of naming notes or playing a melody with a musical instrument. It all depends on the type of game chosen. All this cannot be done at the music conservatory. Such an institution imposes strict rules to be respected by the students. It also sets goals to be achieved in a relatively short time. Yet, they are sometimes ambitious. Learning is done under some form of constraint.

It should also be emphasized that learning through play helps to eliminate or at least reduce the stress of doing well. When we learn through play, it allows us to define a less strict, more open learning environment where the fault or the mistake are less sanctioned. As everywhere and the music does not escape this rule, the fear to do well or to do badly can block the student in music. The game makes it possible to play down all this and to break down some barriers. But as I said, we can play while remaining serious, it is necessary at the same time to privilege the playful side by not forgetting the educational contribution.

Find out more:  Musicpleer

Discover everything about music thanks to the game.

As in music lessons, the knowledge of the musicians evolves with the game and the game adapts according to the level. This is why the game, beyond its playful aspect, allows a real progression. As they progress, students make new discoveries and their skills improve. If at first they only discovered notes, at a certain level of the game, they can recognize their sound. It is quite possible that they can decipher a partition.

In deciding to ‘ learn music through the game, you can also entertain. You can even share this hobby with friends or family. Note however that the success of learning depends on the choice of the game. For a child, we must opt ​​for a play of musical awakening that will help him discover the sounds and feel their passion for music. As for adults, it is more appropriate to choose a game that allows you to acquire more knowledge.

Musiclic also proposes to learn music through play because I am convinced that it is a method that works: the main topics addressed by this technique are the reading of notes in Sol clef and key of Fa for example, the intervals in music, major or minor scales and many more. All these games to learn the music present on the site will allow you, at one time or another that it is solo or with family, to improve you.

Freddy Fazbear’s Pizzeriadd Simulator

Freddy Fazbear’s Pizzeriadd Simulator

FNaF World Simulator (Russian Simulator Pizzeria “At Freddie Faber”) – the seventh game in the game franchise “Five Nights at Freddy’s “. It was released on December 4, 2017.

About the game

“You are the owner of the pizzeria “Freddy Fazbear’s Pizzeria”. Your goal is to manage the restaurant: feed visitors, improve the design of the premises, and buy new animatronics. In addition, there is a basis for the gameplay of canonical franchise games, which is expressed in an additional task during the night, where you will have to update the pizzeria system and do other trifles. The game in Steam is shown in 8-bit style, but most of the gameplay is 3D.                ”

Game process

Each game day, the player must check the pizzeria, distribute pizza to children, posters and perform other actions to improve the pizzeria. He also has to check the ventilation in the office, or else the animatronics will attack the player.


June 11, 2017 – the first Scott Coton teaser, dedicated to FNaF World Simulator, was released on FNaF This is an image called “Iamstillhere” (Russian “Явсёещёздесь”), which depicts the eyes of Scrap Baby. Clarification of any results did not. The code found the text:

“Be quiet. Yes, I can.” You can do everything that I tell you to do. “That does not matter, dummy.” You can be lost without me. “I can put myself back together.” (Russkiy calm Yes, I can do everything you tell me, it does not matter, silly, you would be lost without me.

August 18, 2017 – on site appeared teaser, which depicts Minigame Freddy from the Fake Fake game and a colorful strip behind him. Later in the teaser, the children from the same mini-game appeared, and then he changed to juggling pizza Minigame Freddy.

?? ?????? 2017 – Teaser updated, it was written the name of the upcoming game – FNaF World Simulator and the signature – “Coming soon!” (Russian Soon!).

December 3, 2017 – the teaser changed, it said that the game will be released in 2 days.

December 4, 2017 – the teaser changed, it said that the game will be released in 1 day.

December 5, 2017 – the game officially goes on Steam. On the teaser, it has been written that the game is already available.

December 7, 2017 – there is an update of 1.021, which slightly simplifies the game, slightly changes the scrambler and fixes bugs.

December 13, 2017 – the game goes to Gamejolt.


8-bit from the fake game

Minigame Freddy

Minigame Shadow Freddy


Tutorial Unit

Cassette Man




Scrap Baby

Molten Freddy


Pizzeria facilities

Trash and the Gang

Bucket Bob

Pan Stan

No. 1 Crate

Mr. Can-do

Mr. Hugs

Mediocre Melodies


Nedd Bear

Mr. Hippo

Happy Frog

Orville Elephant

Rockstars Assemble

Rockstar freddy

Rockstar bonnie

Rockstar chica

Rockstar Foxy

Posh Pizzeria

Funtime Chica

El Chip

Music Man


Security Puppet

Candy Cadet

Paper Pals


Scott laid out the game not only on Steam, but also in Gamejolt.

This is the second game from the FNaF series, where to complete the shift, you need to complete all tasks, and not live up to 6 o’clock in the morning. The first is Sister Location.

If you click on the Helpy’s nose in the office, then we will hear a squeak that is in all the games of the FNaF series.

This is the fourth game from the FNaF series, where you need to use the keyboard during the game. The first such game is FNaF 2, the second – FNaF 4, the third – Sister Location.

This is the only game in the series where, during night shifts, we cannot see antagonists in addition to the scramblers.

In this game, the first version of animatronics scrambars in the office was the same animation as the animation of the scrambars in the rescue room, there were only minor and minor changes in their appearance.

The game file in the “MMFapplications” folder, which determines the progress of the game, is called “FNAF6”.

Next to the right ventilation in the office is a drawing of a clown with a red ball. This is most likely a reference to Stephen King’s novel “It.” On the question of one of the fans, “Is it a coincidence or not?” Scott replied “Maybe, maybe …”

This is the only game of the series in which there is no fan in the office.

This is the only game in the series where we are already familiar animatronics of the “classic four” (Freddie, Bonnie, Chick and Foxy) do not try to kill us.

The model of stars on the chest of Rockstar animatronics is taken from the first part of the game. Such stars were on the backs of chairs in the Dining Zone.

It’s strange that Scott did not translate the game for Mac devices, because from mid-2017 Clickteam Fusion 2.5 added this feature.

Teaser with Baby “Iamstillhere”, perhaps, is a reference to a teaser with Springprint to FNaF 3.

Tinted Windows Banned: What Fines, What Rules?- Window Tinting Houston

Tinted Windows Banned: What Fines, What Rules?- Window Tinting Houston

TINTED GLASS – Since 1 January 2017, window tint for home & business

Are subject to stricter regulations. But are all colors concerned, what are the rules to be respected and the penalties incurred? Our answers.

TINTED GLASS PROHIBITED – This is one of the spectacular Highway Code reforms in 2017 (with the pollution sticker). This is indeed official, most tinted windows will gradually disappear from the fleet, at least those below a transparency rate of 70%. From 1 January 2017, the rules on the over-aging of car window tint for home & business will be changed. Will all vehicles be affected, should all surfaces (front, side, rear windows) be changed? We are taking stock of this evolution of the Highway Code via this special file. Fines incurred, rules, cost for the profession, here are our answers.

Tinted windows: blackout dates and reasons

The rules concerning tinted windows have been modified by the decree n ° 2016-448 of April 13th, 2016 but the regulation will come into effect on January 1st, 2017. Until that date, tinted windows are not prohibited under the Highway Traffic Act if it is judged that the driver has sufficient visibility. The new text provides that the windows of a vehicle must comply with a transparency rate (or visible light transmission level) of 70%.According to the DSCR (Directorate for Road Safety and Traffic), this minimum rate allows law enforcement to better see the infringements, to better see the driver during a check. It must also allow the driver better visibility. This rule only applies to the front windows. Some vehicles, such as ambulances and armored vehicles, will be exempted.


If you decide to tint the window tint for home & business of your vehicle, you must respect certain technical characteristics to avoid trouble.

The front side windows of the vehicle must allow light to pass 70% or more when measured with a photometer.

A strip no more than 15 cm wide may be placed on the upper part of the windscreen. No material or substance should be placed or sprayed on the windshield.


The rear side windows as well as the rear window are not subject to these rules.

A peace officer intercepts your vehicle and takes a photometric reading (light measurement) of the front side windows. The windows let in less than 70% of the light.

A peace officer intercepts your vehicle and gives you a notice of verification of the front side windows. You must then go to a vehicle inspection agent.

If you do not have this check done, you risk a fine of $ 438 to $ 865.

If the representative declares that the windows are not in conformity

It issues a notice requiring the owner or driver to make or have made the required changes within 48 hours. After this period, the representative will have to check the conformity of the windows again.

If corrections are not made within the required time

The vehicle cannot be recirculated. If you are still driving with the vehicle, you risk:

All window films deteriorate with age and must be removed. Two of the most common symptoms of a used film are the dreaded “purple films” and the “films that bubble”. The purple film is due to non-metallic dyes in the film that decompose and change color. Bubbling films are a sign that the adhesive used to apply the hue to the window disappears. When a bubble appears, others will soon follow. If you try to remove the window tint for home & business tint by simply pulling it out, you will probably end up with a scratch-sticky window, which will take you several hours.

You live on Herb lay and you want to have solar films put on the windows of your car? Trust Black tint tinted windows. Near your home, Black tint employees all have more than ten years of experience in this field. Our supplier of tinted films has been on his side for more than 30 years and is a leader in France. Founded in 2008, Black tint Tinted Glass is just as number one in its sector. first lets you discover what your vehicle will look like when the movies are set based on the desired coverage and type of movie. The simulator allows you to get an idea. Second, the center near Herb lay is at your service seven days a week to inform you. An appointment can be given as soon as possible. The setting up of the films requires about three hours of work.

What is the Layout? – Elements of a Web Layout

What is the Layout? – Elements of a Web Layout

Layout is the way in which the different graphic elements that make up a page are related to each other.

In the field of the modern web design there is a general tendency to build pages as follows:

There are slight variations with the menu on the right or two columns rather than one, but the general trend is established on this diagram.

This standardization is explained by the fact that it is easier for the user to find the information.

Of course, it is not mandatory to respect this type of layout and it is up to everyone to present the content of its pages as he wishes.

Some sectors of activity even have an interest in playing the card of originality.

Anyway, the way you want to present your pages is yours and it will be good to think first to establish a layout that meets the objectives you have set.

After this first thought to determine the trend of your layout, you will have to ask yourself whether you are giving your site a fixed or expandable width.

Indeed, there is an important phenomenon to manage when designing a site, it is the screen resolution.

By viewing the display properties of your computer (Right click on the desktop + properties), the Settings tab tells you the resolution of your screen as shown in the image below:

Here the screen is set with a resolution of 1440 x 900 pixels. This means that the screen displays a window of 1440 pixels horizontally and 900 vertically. It is of course possible to choose the resolution that best corresponds to his preferences but this is where the problem occurs when setting up a modern web design because we do not know the resolution that each user has chosen. It is therefore necessary to build pages that adapt to both a resolution of 1024 x 768 and another of 1280 x 1024.

The general trend is to choose between a site of fixed width (example 960 pixels) centered horizontally and a variable width site adapting to the width of the window.

CSS can handle two relatively different aspects of your page layout:

Presentation of texts, playing on size, color, line spacing, type of character, fat, etc.

Layout, managing the layout of the main elements (header, menu, footer, etc.) and their contents.

This second point is undoubtedly the most complex to master. To allow you to go around and make the evolutionary modern web design that allow the CSS, we will address the necessary concepts one by one:

When the browser encounters a “block ” element , it returns to the line, displays the block element and then returns to the line to dispose of the rest of the content.

If the user changes the width of the page, the browser recalculates the layout of all items on the page to fit the new available width (unless the page width is set by specific instructions).

This flow description corresponds to the “standard” schema of a modern web design page. CSS allows you to manage a very wide variety of exceptions to this schematic and allow you for example:

To have several columns of content side by side

The width of the site remains the same whatever the resolution of the screen but the sidebands are more or less wide.

In US Help to Buy a First Home.

In US Help to Buy a First Home.

I want to write about the types of assistance that the government of US providing for the purchase of first home (apartment).

Help is of two types – exemption from duty on buying your first home (stamp duty) and the results of the grant for the purchase of their first home in US.

State governments provide assistance in the purchase of a first home. Therefore, the amount of aid and the conditions of its reception are different, depending on what state you live in. In addition, these rules constantly change, sometimes very quickly. So it is quite important to read the latest information on the website of the state government. Links to those sites I gave in the article.

Exemption from duties on the purchase of a home:

Duty this in English is called stamp duty and can be a significant amount. Calculator here. For example, the duty to purchase a home for $350,000 is $10,075 state of Queensland, and in Victoria $13,870.

When buying your first home, even if it is necessary to consider that the price for which sold the house, we still have to add on the duty to assess how much it will cost all purchase.

Stamp Duty is a tax that collects every state to replenish its Treasury.

For those who buy their homes for the first time, the state government abolished the payment of this tax, to make more people decided to buy your own house.


Duty (stamp duty) on house worth up to 500 thousand dollars. If the value of the house from 500,000 to 600 thousand, then duty is payable on part. If the house is 600 thousand or more, the fee is paid in full; the Land for the construction of their first home is also not subject to duty, if less than 250 thousand

In Queensland there is a discount for payment of the fee (stamp duty) when buying your first home already and for those who buy house for the first time. All the duty is not removed, but reduced. On the first 350,000 value of the home fee reduced to 1% (now 2.5%). On the investment property but this exemption does not apply.

Information on exemptions for stamp duty on the government website QLD: Home concession

New South Wealth:

The fee is not paid on a home costing up to $ 650,000 (without the benefit of the stamp duty on a house worth 650,000 in NSW 24,740). On the house of cost of 650,000 to 800,000 fee to be paid in part. If the house is 800,000 or more, the fee is paid in full; the Land for the construction of his first house is also not taxed, if worth less than $ 350,000.

Information on exemptions for stamp duty on the NSW government website: Home concession

Victoria: the tax is not paid by the buyers of their first home for homes worth up to 600 thousand dollars. On the house of cost of 650,000 to 750,000 fee to be paid in part. If the house/apartment is 750,000 or more, the fee is paid in full;

Information on privileges on stamp duty — on the website of the government of Victoria: Stamp duty concession

Northern Territory: No duty on houses worth up to 500 thousand dollars, then up to 700 thousand duty gradually be paid, if the house is 700 thousand or more, the fee to be paid in full; the Land for the construction of their first home is also not subject to duty or duty reduced if the land is worth less than 385 thousand

Details on the website of the government NT: First home owner concessions.

South US:

Discount for buyers of their first home is given only with the purchase of a new apartment with a plan, or apartment thoroughly updated. Such discounts is very complicated and is described in detail on the website of the government SA: off the plan concession.


Full cancellation fees for the purchase of the first property of $ 430,000. On the house of cost from 430,000 to 530,000 fee to be paid in part. If the house/apartment is 530,000 more, the fee to be paid in full;

Information on the government website WA: Stamp Duty Concessions

Bonus for buying first home

The amount of money that the state government lists at the time of purchase of a house or apartment (settlement) to buyers of their first home (house or apartment) the Execution of all documents usually takes a lawyer (conveyance) , which is leading the deal. Usually you need to inform your Bank and lawyer that this is your first house, they are doing it all yourself.

Each state has its own rules about what amount of bonus should be issued and under what circumstances. In addition, these rules change almost every year. There were moments in history when the bonus even cancelled, and then again gave.


At the moment (February 2018), the bonus is $ 20,000. The bonus is, if this is the first shelter in US, the house must be new (not secondary market), and cost 750,000 dollars. All the rules here: Eligibility for first home owner grant.

Information on the grant on the government website QLD: Queensland First Home Owners’ Grant


100,000 grant for the purchase of a new home worth up to 600,0000. Information on state government: First Home buyers

Victoria: $20,000 to buyers of their first home if the home is worth less than $ 750,000, and new built in regional Victoria. Learn more about what regional Victoria and other conditions of receiving this grant here: First home owner Grant

Northern Territory: $26,000 for those buying their first home. Housing must be new. There are no restrictions on the cost of housing.

Learn more here: first home owner grant.

South US: $15,000 grant for buyers of their first home, provided that it is new and costs less than 575,000.

Details on the website of the government SA: Fist home owner grant.

Western US:

10,000 grant for the purchase of a first home costing up to 1 million. Dollars for a new housing and North of the 26 parallel.

A very good website with updated information here — First Home Buyer Information.